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Pharmaceuticals and Water Supplies

We all know that prescription drugs are vital for fighting and curing serious disease. However, as reported in recent news articles, trace levels of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in water supplies throughout the world. The good news is that studies conducted to date by the United States Geological Survey and others have not found any significant levels of harmful contaminants in our groundwater basin.

So, what does this mean for Orange County water users and for Anaheim in particular?

 

First, a little background. Pharmaceutical compounds, or prescription medications, make their way into the environment through the discharge from wastewater treatment plants. While this issue is relatively new to the general public, water supply professionals have been conducting research on trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water for over 10 years. As technological improvements increase the sensitivity of laboratory instruments to detect various compounds, it is not a surprise that more compounds are being found in water supplies. However, it is difficult to understand the meaning of concentrations in the parts per trillion range. A part per trillion is equivalent to a single drop in 1,000 swimming pools or roughly one millionth of a dose of a prescription drug.

 

While there is still uncertainty whether these extremely low levels have any effect on humans, one toxicologist, Shane Synder, was quoted in a Los Angeles Times’ Jan. 30, 2006, article as saying, “All the data we have compiled indicates these concentrations are trivial to public health…” However there are many ongoing studies seeking answers. 

 

You should know that currently there are no regulatory standards or requirements to monitor for these substances. Also, no approved methods of detection have been established. You also should know that several studies on the use of reclaimed water for groundwater recharge have found no significant threat to public health when conducted in the manner used here in Southern California.

 

The Orange County Water District (OCWD), which manages the groundwater basin in northern and central Orange County, has been aware of this issue and is taking action in coordination with Anaheim Public Utilities and other local water providers to assure that our groundwater remains safe, including:

 

  • Working with the Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority on several matters pertaining to protection of the watershed and water quality. This organization works with wastewater treatment plants to ensure that discharges meet all current standards. 
  • Managing the wetlands behind Prado Dam, which provide additional natural degradation of substances in river water prior to it flowing into Orange County. 
  • Completing the Santa Ana River Water Quality Health Effects Study, which researched the long-term public health implications of using treated wastewater for groundwater recharge. The study, which was authored by a team of independent environmental and medical health professionals, concluded that this practice does not threaten public health. Depending on the findings of current and future research, study of the potential health effects of pharmaceuticals may also be conducted.
  • Implementing a water quality monitoring program to track the presence of substances correlated with wastewater, including pharmaceuticals.
  • Ensuring that the Groundwater Replenishment System, which uses purified wastewater for groundwater recharge, will include advanced water treatment techniques that completely remove pharmaceutical compounds from water.
  • Conducting tracer studies, which have determined that it takes several years for recharged water to reach a municipal water supply well. Most pharmaceutical compounds naturally degrade as water travels through rivers, lakes and the subsurface layers of rocks and sand.

In addition, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, of which Anaheim Public Utilities is a member, has implemented a wide-ranging program to better understand the significance of trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.  This research, along with research funded by state and federal regulatory agencies, will help determine if new drinking water standards should be established.

 

Locally, the Orange County Sanitation District is taking a leadership role to educate prescription drug users in Orange County on how to properly dispose of unused drugs. The Los Angeles Sanitation District also is trying to educate consumers through public service announcements, information released to the media and disposal information at pharmacies.

 

At the State level, the California Integrated Waste Management Board is developing an improved program for the collection and proper disposal of drug waste.

 

How can you help? Most environmental organizations recommend that unused pharmaceuticals and other personal care products be disposed at a household hazardous waste facility, such as the ones operated by Orange County Integrated Waste Department. The most convenient facility for Anaheim residents is located at the southwest corner of Blue Gum Street and La Palma Avenue in Anaheim. While the center shares the site with the CVT Recycling Center , it has different operating days and hours. For more information about the Center in Anaheim , including days of operation, operating hours, directions and a map, Click here. If you are unable to get to a household hazardous waste facility, experts recommend that you dispose of unused drugs by securely wrapping and placing them in your trash.

 

For more information:

          California's Department of Toxic Substances Control Web site

          California Integrated Waste Management Board - Disposal of Pharmaceuticals

          American Water Works Association's Drinktap.org site

          Current Federal Guidelines for Proper Disposal of Prescription Drugs

 

If you have any specific questions, please contact us at waterquality@anaheim.net.

 

March 20, 2008